Ivan Mikloš was the minister of privatization in 1991–1992, served as deputy prime minister for the economy in the first government of Mikuláš Dzurinda (1998–2002) and was deputy prime minister and minister of finance of the Slovak Republic in 2002–2006 and 2010–2012. He was a member of the National Council of the Slovak Republic in 2006–2010 and 2012-2016.
In 1992, he co-founded the economic think tank MESA10, which he successfully led until 1998. In 2014, he was re-elected its president and became a member of the Corps of International Advisers of the National Reform Council of Ukraine and the VoxUkraine platform. Starting in February 2015, he held the position of senior adviser to the Ukrainian minister of finance and was also an adviser to the Ukrainian minister of the economy. He held these positions until April 2016, when he became the chief economic adviser to the Ukrainian prime minister. He leads a strategic group of advisers to support reforms in Ukraine and is a co-founder of the Ukrainian economic think tank Center for Economic Strategy.
Ivan Mikloš was one of the leading figures in the economic transformation in Slovakia. During his tenure, Slovakia achieved several international successes, including, in particular, joining the OECD (2000), NATO (2004) and the European Union (2004). Many reform changes have taken place under his leadership, especially in the area of taxation. According to a Euromoney survey, he was named “Best Finance Minister” in 2004.